Imaging characteristics of Sjögren's syndrome

Published:September 15, 2022DOI:


      • The “salt-and-pepper” appearance is characteristic of Sjögren’s syndrome on conventional MR imaging
      • MR sialography provides highest sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome
      • Ultrasonography is ideal for salivary gland evaluation given its high spatial and contrast resolution
      • Imaging cannot reliably distinguish between solid nodules related to benign lymphoid hyperplasia versus lymphoma


      The current workup of Sjögren's syndrome is based on diagnostic criteria involving a combination of histology, immunology, ophthalmology, and salivary flow. Several modern imaging techniques provide complementary and additional information to diagnosis, staging, and surveillance. In this review article, we discuss the characteristic salivary imaging findings seen with the most commonly utilized imaging modalities. We also discuss imaging findings of the central nervous system disorders associated with Sjögren's syndrome, including the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, and provide a differential diagnosis of alternative etiologies that can mimic Sjögren's syndrome.


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