Development of paravertebral pseudoaneurysms following vertebral augmentation: a report of two cases


      • Pseudoaneurysm formation following vertebral augmentation is rare and difficult to manage due to the atypical location.
      • Embolization may be performed via direct puncture or a trans-arterial approach, as with pseudoaneurysms in other locations.
      • Appropriate management hinges on a comprehensive understanding of spinal arterial anatomy.


      Paravertebral pseudoaneurysms are infrequent following vertebral augmentation but can be difficult to manage due to their proximity to the arterial supply of the spinal cord. Here, we present two distinct manifestations of this complication with associated anatomy and management. In the first, a pseudoaneurysm developed following radiofrequency ablation and kyphoplasty at the L2 and L4 levels. Direct puncture embolization initially failed to close the pseudoaneurysm, but stasis was ultimately achieved via trans-arterial embolization. In the second, vertebral augmentation at the T9 and T11-L3 levels was complicated by formation of a pseudoaneurysm fed by a segmental artery and a long paravertebral anastomotic vein. Due to the patient's poor medical status, intervention was not performed. Understanding vertebral arterial anatomy is crucial for preventing and treating vascular injury in vertebral augmentation.


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