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Radiographic features of pneumonitis in patients treated with immunotherapy compared to traditional chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

      Highlights

      • Here we present the first analysis of radiographic findings of IRAE pneumonitis versus pneumonitis caused by chemotherapy
      • Immunotherapy was associated pulmonary nodules and the number of immunotherapy agents correlated with incidence of pulmonary nodules
      • Features of IRAE pneumonitis improved over time while those of chemotherapy pneumonitis worsened

      Abstract

      Background

      Pneumonitis has been described as a side effect of immunotherapy as well as traditional chemotherapy. Although immune-related adverse event (IRAE) pneumonitis has been extensively characterized, the relationship between IRAE pneumonitis and pneumonitis secondary to chemotherapy is less clear. Here, we present the first analysis of radiographic features of pneumonitis secondary to immunotherapy compared to chemotherapy.

      Methods

      Using our radiology records system, we searched chest computed tomography (CT) reports for the term “pneumonitis”. We evaluated medical records to establish chronicity of pneumonitis occurring after medication administration and excluded cases where radiation therapy appeared to be the cause of pneumonitis. We also obtained information regarding demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics for comparison.

      Results

      Patients treated with immunotherapy demonstrated more specific features of pneumonitis including consolidation, ground glass opacities, septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, and pulmonary nodules compared to those treated with chemotherapy. Immunotherapy treatment correlated with the development of pulmonary nodules (p = 0.048), and administration of more than one immunotherapy agent correlated with a greater incidence of development of nodules (p = 0.050). Radiographic features in patients treated with immunotherapy all decreased over time. Conversely, in patients treated with chemotherapy the incidence of ground glass opacities, traction bronchiectasis, pulmonary nodules, and mediastinal/hilar adenopathy increased over time.

      Conclusions

      IRAE-pneumonitis has distinct features and a distinct clinical course compared to pneumonitis secondary to chemotherapy. Importantly, IRAE-pneumonitis features decreased over time, suggesting that careful consideration of the benefit-risk ratio may allow for continuation of immunotherapy in some patients who develop pneumonitis.

      Keywords

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