International survey on residency programs in radiology: similarities and differences among 17 countries


      • The educational goals in all countries are aimed at training an independent radiologist.
      • Although there are major similarities among training programs worldwide there are some significant differences.
      • Among the countries, there was variability among the number of residency programs and residents per program.
      • Taking call was an integral part of residency. Variability was significant with differences in resident responsibilities.
      • Most trainees will recommend radiology as a profession but stagnation and uncertainties need to be addressed.



      With the initiative of the ACR International Economics Committee, a multinational survey was conducted to evaluate radiology residency programs around the world.


      A 31-question survey was developed. It included: economic issues, program size and length, resident's activities during daytime and call, academic aspects including syllabus and examinations. Data was tabulated using the forementioned thematic framework and was qualitatively analyzed.


      Responses were received from all 17 countries that were invited to participate (France, Netherlands, Israel, UK, Russia, USA, Japan, India, Germany, Canada, Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, and Greece). Residency length varied between 2 and 5 years. The certificate of residency completion is provided by a local hospital [4/17 (23%)], University [6/17 (36%)], National Board [6/17 (36%)], and Ministry of Health [1/17 (6%)]. There was variability among the number of residency programs and residents per program ranging from 15 to 300 programs per nation with a 1–700 residents in each one respectively. Salaries varied significantly and ranged from 8000 to 75,000 USD equivalent. Exams are an integral part of training in all surveyed countries. Length of call varied between 5 and 26 h and the number of monthly calls ranged from 3 to 6. The future of radiology was judged as growing in [12/17 (70%)] countries and stagnant in [5/17 (30%)] countries.


      Radiology residency programs worldwide have many similarities. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs. Stagnation and uncertainties need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of the next generation of radiologists.

      Summary statement

      There are many similarities in the academic aims and approach to education and training of radiology residency programs worldwide. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs and payments to individual residents.


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