Advertisement

International survey on residency programs in radiology: similarities and differences among 17 countries

      Highlights

      • The educational goals in all countries are aimed at training an independent radiologist.
      • Although there are major similarities among training programs worldwide there are some significant differences.
      • Among the countries, there was variability among the number of residency programs and residents per program.
      • Taking call was an integral part of residency. Variability was significant with differences in resident responsibilities.
      • Most trainees will recommend radiology as a profession but stagnation and uncertainties need to be addressed.

      Abstract

      Objective

      With the initiative of the ACR International Economics Committee, a multinational survey was conducted to evaluate radiology residency programs around the world.

      Methods

      A 31-question survey was developed. It included: economic issues, program size and length, resident's activities during daytime and call, academic aspects including syllabus and examinations. Data was tabulated using the forementioned thematic framework and was qualitatively analyzed.

      Results

      Responses were received from all 17 countries that were invited to participate (France, Netherlands, Israel, UK, Russia, USA, Japan, India, Germany, Canada, Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, and Greece). Residency length varied between 2 and 5 years. The certificate of residency completion is provided by a local hospital [4/17 (23%)], University [6/17 (36%)], National Board [6/17 (36%)], and Ministry of Health [1/17 (6%)]. There was variability among the number of residency programs and residents per program ranging from 15 to 300 programs per nation with a 1–700 residents in each one respectively. Salaries varied significantly and ranged from 8000 to 75,000 USD equivalent. Exams are an integral part of training in all surveyed countries. Length of call varied between 5 and 26 h and the number of monthly calls ranged from 3 to 6. The future of radiology was judged as growing in [12/17 (70%)] countries and stagnant in [5/17 (30%)] countries.

      Discussion

      Radiology residency programs worldwide have many similarities. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs. Stagnation and uncertainties need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of the next generation of radiologists.

      Summary statement

      There are many similarities in the academic aims and approach to education and training of radiology residency programs worldwide. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs and payments to individual residents.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Imaging
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Schiller P.T.
        • Phillips A.W.
        • Straus C.M.
        Radiology education in medical school and residency: the views and needs of program directors.
        Acad Radiol. 2018; 25: 1333-1343
        • Weggemans M.M.
        • van Dijk B.
        • van Dooijeweert B.
        • Veenendaal A.G.
        • Ten Cate O.
        The postgraduate medical education pathway: an international comparison.
        GMS J Med Educ. 2017; 34
        • Sarkany D.S.
        • Shenoy-Bhangle A.S.
        • Catanzano T.M.
        • Fineberg T.A.
        • Eisenberg R.L.
        • Slanetz P.J.
        Running a radiology residency program: strategies for success.
        Radiographics. 2018; 38: 1729
        • Kadom N.
        • Sloan K.
        • Gupte G.
        • et al.
        Radiology residency quality improvement curriculum: lessons learned.
        Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2016; 45: 319-323
        • Zener R.
        • Ross I.
        Global health imaging in radiology residency: a survey of Canadian radiology residents.
        Can Assoc Radiol J. 2017; 68 (International radiology): 348-356
        • Hammer M.M.
        • Shetty A.S.
        • Cizman Z.
        • et al.
        Results of the 2015 survey of the American alliance of academic chief residents in radiology.
        Acad Radiol. 2015; 22: 1308-1316
        • Matalon S.A.
        • Howard S.A.
        • Gaviola G.C.
        • et al.
        Customized residency leadership tracks: a review of what works, what we’re doing and ideas for the future.
        Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2018; 47: 359-363
        • Kung J.W.
        • Slanetz P.J.
        • Huang G.C.
        • Eisenberg R.L.
        Reflective practice: assessing its effectiveness to teach professionalism in a radiology residency.
        Acad Radiol. 2015; 22: 1280-1286
        • Lam C.Z.
        • Nguyen H.N.
        • Ferguson E.C.
        Radiology Resident’ satisfaction with their training and education in the United States: effect of program directors, teaching faculty, and other factors on program success.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016; 206: 907-916
        • Rehani B.
        • Zhang Y.C.
        • Rehani M.M.
        • et al.
        Radiology education in Europe: analysis of results from 22 European countries.
        World J Radiol. 2017; 9: 55
        • Kim S.Y.
        • Xydias T.
        • Peters A.A.
        • et al.
        Radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians are looking forward to a cross-curricular training.
        Eur Radiol. 2019; 29: 4803-4811
      1. Fourteen years of progress testing in radiology residency training: experiences from The Netherlands DR Rutgers et al. Eur Radiol 28 (5), 2208–2215.

        • Kelleher Jr., M.S.
        • Rolen M.F.
        • Bokhari S.A.J.
        Reshaping the emergency radiology call experience after the merger of two programs: the Yale experience.
        Emerg Radiol. 2016; 23: 63-66
        • Berger W.G.
        • Gibson S.W.
        • Krupinski E.A.
        • Morais J.D.
        Proposed ACGME change in length of radiology residency training before independent call: results of a survey of program directors and chief residents.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2007; 4: 595-601
        • Rumack C.M.
        American diagnostic radiology residency and fellowship programmes.
        Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2011; 40: 126-131
        • Zha N.
        • Patlas M.N.
        • Neuheimer N.
        • Duszak Jr., R.
        Prevalence of burnout among Canadian radiologists and radiology trainees.
        Can Assoc Radiol J. 2018; 69: 367-372
        • Alvin M.D.
        • George E.
        • Deng F.
        • Warhadpande S.
        • Lee S.I.
        The impact of COVID-19 on radiology trainees.
        Radiology. 2020; 296: 246-248