- •In pregnant patients, unique challenges during nephrostomy placement, include anesthesia, radiation dose, and catheter encrustation.
- •Nephrostomy drainage is safe and effective in pregnancy; however, it is unclear if pain management alone is effective.
- •Nephrostomy is less effective in treating hydronephrosis-related pain in patients with pre-existing ureteral stents.
Materials and methods
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☆No funding was obtained for this study.
☆☆This study has not been previously published nor is under consideration elsewhere. An abstract by the same title was presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology annual meeting in 2019.