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MRI in intracranial tuberculosis: Have we seen it all?

      Highlights

      • Intracranial tuberculosis is emerging across the globe.
      • Imaging studies, particularly MRI is the cornerstone in the diagnosis.
      • Typical and atypical features contribute to a diverse imaging pattern.
      • Knowledge of the various possibilities and advanced MRI techniques is essential.

      Abstract

      Tuberculosis is emerging worldwide across diverse populations and geographies; unrestricted by the social divide and the geographical barriers in today's interconnected world. This rise in its prevalence can be linked to multiple factors including urbanisation, spurt in global travel, population explosion, migration and HIV infection. The varied and complex clinical presentation of intracranial tuberculosis tricks even the best of the clinicians. This along with the other facets associated with its management including drug resistance, paradoxical reaction, underlying HIV infection can make it particularly challenging. Imaging has a definitive role in the evaluation and follow-up of intracranial tuberculosis and MRI is the cornerstone in this regard. Typical features of intracranial tuberculosis are well-described. However, it is not infrequent to encounter atypical and bizarre presentations, both clinically and on imaging. A holistic clinical and imaging review of difficult cases, including newer MRI techniques, is necessary for the neuroradiologist, neurologist and the neurosurgeon to arrive at the right diagnosis in a timely fashion.

      Keywords

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