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Peripheral vessel and air bronchograms for detecting the pathologic patterns of subsolid nodules

      Highlights

      • SSN association type with vessels and bronchi narrows pathological type probability.
      • Peripheral vessel type I and air bronchograms type V likely indicate benign tumors.
      • Peripheral vessel type III and/or IV are more likely to indicate malignancy.
      • Air bronchograms type I and/or II are more likely to indicate malignancy.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To assess the relationships of subsolid nodules (SSNs) with peripheral vessels and aerated bronchi using computed tomography (CT), and to correlate the imaging features with the benign/malignant pathological diagnoses.

      Methods

      This study retrospectively analyzed data from 83 patients with a solitary SSN (January 2008 to December 2016). SSNs were imaged (LightSpeed 64-slice spiral CT, General Electric, USA), their mean diameter determined, and the relationship with peripheral vessels (types I-IV) and aerated bronchi (types I-V) were classified. Pathologic diagnoses were obtained from the surgical specimens.

      Results

      SSNs were diagnosed as benign (n = 29), pre-invasive (n = 9), micro-invasive adenocarcinoma (n = 7) and invasive adenocarcinoma (n = 38). SSN size, peripheral vessel class and aerated bronchus class differed between pathologic types (P < 0.05). For benign SSNs, peripheral vessel type II (58.6%) was most common, followed by III (20.7%) and IV (6.9%). Aerated bronchus type V (65.5%) was most frequent, followed by IV (27.6%); type I aerated bronchus was not observed. No cases of micro-invasive or invasive adenocarcinoma were peripheral vessel type I or aerated bronchus type V. For invasive adenocarcinoma, 92.1% were peripheral vessel types III + IV while 71.8% were aerated bronchus types I + II.

      Conclusions

      SSN pathologic types differ with regard to peripheral vessel and aerated bronchus types. Type I peripheral vessel and type V aerated bronchus (both least involved) suggest a benign lesion, whereas type III/IV peripheral vessel and type I/II aerated bronchus (both most involved) suggest malignancy.

      Keywords

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