Advertisement

Imaging features of sinonasal tumors on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion weighted imaging: A pictorial review

      Highlights

      • When evaluating sinonasal tumors, CT is ideal for evaluating bone changes.
      • MRI provides tissue characteristics which enables distinction of tumor from inflammatory tissue.
      • 18F-FDG PET/CT provides substantial information regarding the tumor behavior.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Sinonasal inflammatory conditions account for a major component of head and neck pathologies, whereas neoplasms involving the sinonasal region make up only 2–3% of all head and neck lesions. The symptoms of sinonasal tumors are nonspecific; imaging plays a critical role in distinguishing benign and malignant disease and may illustrate characteristic radiological features of specific sinonasal tumors.

      Objective

      Aim was to determine the utilization of multimodality imaging, specifically the metabolic information provided by 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and diffusivity characteristics seen with diffusion weighted images (DWI) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in a wide range of benign and malignant sinonasal tumors drawn from over 200 sinonasal lesions from our institution and supplemented by the literature.

      Conclusion

      In this pictorial essay, we have reviewed common imaging characteristics of frequently encountered in sinonasal tumors and divided them into benign and malignant categories to facilitate creation of focused differential diagnoses.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Imaging
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Kubal W.S.
        Sinonasal imaging: malignant disease.
        Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1999; 20: 402-425https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-2171(99)90024-0
        • Bhattacharyya N.
        Factors affecting survival in maxillary sinus cancer.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003; 61: 1016-1021https://doi.org/10.1016/s0278-2391(03)00313-6
        • Howard D.J.
        • Lund V.J.
        • Wei W.I.
        Craniofacial resection for tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 25-year experience.
        Head Neck. 2006; 28: 867-873https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.20432
        • Koeller K.K.
        Radiologic features of sinonasal tumors.
        Head Neck Pathol. 2016; 10: 1-12https://doi.org/10.1007/s12105-016-0686-9
        • Gomaa M.A.
        • Hammad M.S.
        • Abdelmoghny A.
        • Elsherif A.M.
        • Tawfik H.M.
        Magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography and different imaging modalities in evaluation of sinonasal neoplasms diagnosed by histopathology.
        Clin Med Insights Ear Nose Throat. 2013; 6: 9https://doi.org/10.4137/cment.s10678
        • Som P.M.
        • Shapiro M.D.
        • Biller H.F.
        • Sasaki C.
        • Lawson W.
        Sinonasal tumors and inflammatory tissues: differentiation with MR imaging.
        Radiology. 1988; 167: 803-808https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.167.3.3363145
        • Sasaki M.
        • Eida S.
        • Sumi M.
        • Nakamura T.
        Apparent diffusion coefficient mapping for sinonasal diseases: differentiation of benign and malignant lesions.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2011; 32: 1100-1106https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.a2434
        • Hannah A.
        • Scott A.M.
        • Tochon-Danguy H.
        • Chan J.G.
        • Akhurst T.
        • Berlangieri S.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography with histopathologic correlation in the initial staging of head and neck cancer.
        Ann Surg. 2002; 236: 208-217https://doi.org/10.1097/00000658-200208000-00009
        • Jeon T.Y.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Choi J.Y.
        • Lee I.H.
        • Kim S.T.
        • Jeon P.
        • et al.
        18F-FDG PET/CT findings of sinonasal inverted papilloma with or without coexistent malignancy: comparison with MR imaging findings in eight patients.
        Neuroradiology. 2009; 51: 265-271https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-009-0510-2
        • Jeong H.S.
        • Chung M.K.
        • Son Y.I.
        • Choi J.Y.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Ko Y.H.
        • et al.
        Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in management of high-grade salivary gland malignancies.
        J Nucl Med. 2007; 48: 1237-1244https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.107.041350
        • Bell D.
        Head and neck pathology (consultant pathology).
        Head Neck. 2012; 34: 1822https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.22937
        • Tiwari R.
        • Hardillo J.A.
        • Mehta D.
        • Slotman B.
        • Tobi H.
        • Croonenburg E.
        • et al.
        Squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus.
        Head Neck. 2000; 22: 164-169https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0347(200003)22:2<164::AID-HED8>3.0.CO;2-#
        • Hermans R.
        • De Vuysere S.
        • Marchal G.
        Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities.
        Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1999; 20: 150-161https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-2171(99)90016-1
        • Paidpally V.
        • Chirindel A.
        • Lam S.
        • Agrawal N.
        • Quon H.
        • Subramaniam R.M.
        FDG-PET/CT imaging biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
        Imaging Med. 2012; 4: 633-647https://doi.org/10.2217/iim.12.60
        • Bradley P.J.
        • Jones N.S.
        • Robertson I.
        Diagnosis and management of esthesioneuroblastoma.
        Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003; 11: 112-118https://doi.org/10.1097/00020840-200304000-00009
        • Dulguerov P.
        • Allal A.S.
        • Calcaterra T.C.
        Esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis and review.
        Lancet Oncol. 2001; 2: 683-690https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(01)00558-7
        • Broski S.M.
        • Hunt C.H.
        • Johnson G.B.
        • Subramaniam R.M.
        • Peller P.J.
        The added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of patients with esthesioneuroblastoma.
        J Nucl Med. 2012; 53: 1200-1206https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.112.102897
        • Wu H.B.
        • Wang Q.S.
        • Zhong J.M.
        • Zhou W.L.
        • Li H.S.
        • Qiao-yu W.
        Preliminary study on the evaluation of olfactory neuroblastoma using PET/CT.
        Clin Nucl Med. 2011; 36: 894-898https://doi.org/10.1097/rlu.0b013e31821a2711
        • Orvidas L.J.
        • Lewis J.E.
        • Weaver A.L.
        • Bagniewski S.M.
        • Olsen K.D.
        Adenocarcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses: a retrospective study of diagnosis, histologic characteristics, and outcomes in 24 patients.
        Head Neck. 2005; 27: 370-375https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.20168
        • Raghavan P.
        • Phillips C.D.
        Magnetic resonance imaging of sinonasal malignancies.
        TMRI. 2007; 18: 259-267https://doi.org/10.1097/rmr.0b013e31815711b7
        • Maroldi R.
        • Ravanelli M.
        • Farina D.
        • Facchetti L.
        • Bertagna F.
        • Lombardi D.
        • et al.
        Post-treatment evaluation of paranasal sinuses after treatment of sinonasal neoplasms.
        Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2015; 25: 667-685https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2015.07.009
        • Gal T.J.
        • Silver N.
        • Huang B.
        Demographics and treatment trends in sinonasal mucosal melanoma.
        Laryngoscope. 2011; 121: 2026-2033https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.21925
        • Yoshioka H.
        • Kamada T.
        • Kandatsu S.
        • Koga M.
        • Yoshikawa K.
        • Matsuoka Y.
        • et al.
        MRI of mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1998; 22: 492-497https://doi.org/10.1097/00004728-199805000-00024
        • Haerle S.K.
        • Soyka M.B.
        • Fischer D.R.
        • Murer K.
        • Strobel K.
        • Huber G.F.
        • et al.
        The value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging for sinonasal malignant melanoma.
        Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011; 269: 127-133https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-011-1664-1
        • Vidal R.W.
        • Devaney K.
        • Rinaldo A.
        • Ferlito A.
        • Carbone A.
        Sinonasal malignant lymphomas: a distinct clinicopathological category.
        Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1999; 108: 411-419https://doi.org/10.1177/000348949910800417
        • Yen T.T.
        • Wang R.C.
        • Jiang R.S.
        • Chen S.C.
        • Wu S.H.
        • Liang K.L.
        The diagnosis of sinonasal lymphoma: a challenge for rhinologists.
        Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012; 269: 1463-1469https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-011-1839-9
        • Ichikawa Y.
        • Sumi M.
        • Sasaki M.
        • Sumi T.
        • Nakamura T.
        Efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging for the differentiation between lymphomas and carcinomas of the nasopharynx and oropharynx: correlations of apparent diffusion coefficients and histologic features.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2011; 33: 761-766https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.a2834
        • Tempescul A.
        • Querellou S.
        • Ianotto J.C.
        • Boisramé S.
        • Valette G.
        • Berthou C.
        18F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sinonasal tract.
        Ann Hematol. 2010; 89: 635-637https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-009-0842-3
        • Menon S.
        • Pai P.
        • Sengar M.
        • Aggarwal J.P.
        • Kane S.V.
        Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: case series and review of literature.
        Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010; 53: 28https://doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.59179
        • Rischin D.
        • Coleman A.
        Sinonasal malignancies of neuroendocrine origin.
        Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008; 22: 1297-1316https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hoc.2008.08.008
        • Elkhatib A.H.
        • Soldatova L.
        • Carrau R.L.
        • Hachem R.A.
        • Ditzel L.
        • Campbell R.
        • et al.
        Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT differentiating olfactory neuroblastoma from sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
        Laryngoscope. 2016; 127: 321-324https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.26194
        • Coca-Pelaz A.
        • Rodrigo J.P.
        • Bradley P.J.
        • Vander Poorten V.
        • Triantafyllou A.
        • Hunt J.L.
        • et al.
        Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck–an update.
        Oral Oncol. 2015; 51: 652-661https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2015.04.005
        • Kato H.
        • Kanematsu M.
        • Sakurai K.
        • Mizuta K.
        • Aoki M.
        • Hirose Y.
        • et al.
        Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: CT and MR imaging findings.
        Jpn J Radiol. 2013; 31: 744-749https://doi.org/10.1007/s11604-013-0247-z
        • Gil Z.
        • Even-Sapir E.
        • Margalit N.
        • Fliss D.M.
        Integrated PET/CT system for staging and surveillance of skull base tumors.
        Head Neck. 2007; 29: 537-545https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.20545
        • Banks K.P.
        • Ly J.Q.
        • Thompson L.D.
        • Michaelson P.G.
        • Davis S.W.
        Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of sinonasal cavity: a case report and brief literature review.
        Eur J Radiol Ext. 2004; 49: 47-51https://doi.org/10.1016/s1571-4675(03)00125-1
        • Eller R.
        • Sillers M.
        Common fibro-osseous lesions of the paranasal sinuses.
        Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2006; 39: 585-600https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otc.2006.01.013
        • Gonzalez M.E.
        • Raghavan P.
        • Cho B.
        • Muttikkal T.J.
        • Rehm P.K.
        Primary osteogenic osteosarcoma of the ethmoid sinus in an adolescent: case report.
        J Radiol Case Rep. 2016; 10: 1https://doi.org/10.3941/jrcr.v10i2.2298
        • Vlychou M.
        • Ostlere S.J.
        • Kerr R.
        • Athanasou N.A.
        Low-grade osteosarcoma of the ethmoid sinus.
        Skeletal Radiol. 2007; 36: 459-462https://doi.org/10.1007/s00256-006-0231-0
        • Kubo T.
        • Furuta T.
        • Johan M.P.
        • Ochi M.
        Prognostic significance of 18F-FDG PET at diagnosis in patients with soft tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma; systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Eur J Cancer. 2016; 58: 104-111https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2016.02.007
        • Unsal A.A.
        • Chung S.Y.
        • Unsal A.B.
        • Baredes S.
        • Eloy J.A.
        A population-based analysis of survival for sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017; 157: 142-149https://doi.org/10.1177/0194599817696292
        • Kim J.H.
        • Yoon D.Y.
        • Baek S.
        • Park M.W.
        • Kwon K.H.
        • Rho Y.S.
        CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT findings of sinonasal sarcoma: differentiation from squamous cell carcinoma.
        Korean J Radiol. 2016; 75: 17-25https://doi.org/10.3348/jksr.2016.75.1.17
        • Wang X.
        • Song L.
        • Chong V.
        • Wang Y.
        • Li J.
        • Xian J.
        Multiparametric MRI findings of sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma in adults with comparison to carcinoma.
        J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017; 45: 998-1004https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25484
        • Chong V.F.
        • Khoo J.B.
        • Fan Y.F.
        Imaging of the nasopharynx and skull base.
        Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004; 14: 695-719https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2004.07.014
        • Chan K.H.
        • Gao D.
        • Fernandez P.G.
        • Kingdom T.T.
        • Kumpe D.A.
        Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
        Laryngoscope. 2013; 124: 672-677https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.24337
        • Lee D.K.
        • Chung S.K.
        • Dhong H.J.
        • Kim H.Y.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Bok K.H.
        Focal hyperostosis on CT of sinonasal inverted papilloma as a predictor of tumor origin.
        Am J Neuroradiol. 2007; 28: 618-621
        • Jeon T.Y.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Chung S.K.
        • Dhong H.J.
        • Kim H.Y.
        • Yim Y.J.
        • et al.
        Sinonasal inverted papilloma: value of convoluted cerebriform pattern on MR imaging.
        AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008; 29: 1556-1560https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.a1128
        • Ojiri H.
        • Ujita M.
        • Tada S.
        • Fukuda K.
        Potentially distinctive features of sinonasal inverted papilloma on MR imaging.
        Am J Roentgenol. 2000; 175: 465-468https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.175.2.1750465
        • Shojaku H.
        • Fujisaka M.
        • Yasumura S.
        • Ishida M.
        • Tsubota M.
        • Nishida H.
        • et al.
        Positron emission tomography for predicting malignancy of sinonasal inverted papilloma.
        Clin Nucl Med. 2007; 32: 275-278https://doi.org/10.1097/01.rlu.0000257334.65253.cc
        • Kim Y.S.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Kim C.H.
        • Kim J.
        CT and MR imaging findings of sinonasal schwannoma: a review of 12 cases.
        AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012; 34: 628-633https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.a3257
        • Yang B.
        • Wang Y.
        • Wang S.
        • Dong J.
        Magnetic resonance imaging features of schwannoma of the sinonasal tract.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2015; 39: 860-865https://doi.org/10.1097/rct.0000000000000308
        • Mccann J.M.
        • Tyler D.
        • Foss R.D.
        Sino-orbital osteoma with osteoblastoma-like features.
        Head Neck Pathol. 2015; 9: 503-506https://doi.org/10.1007/s12105-015-0613-5
        • Engelbrecht V.
        • Preis S.
        • Hassler W.
        • Lenard H.G.
        CT and MRI of congenital sinonasal ossifying fibroma.
        Neuroradiology. 1999; 41: 526-529https://doi.org/10.1007/s002340050798
        • Maroldi R.
        • Ravanelli M.
        • Borghesi A.
        • Farina D.
        Paranasal sinus imaging.
        Eur J Radiol. 2008; 66: 372-386https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.01.059
        • Fitzpatrick K.A.
        • Taljanovic M.S.
        • Speer D.P.
        • Graham A.R.
        • Jacobson J.A.
        • Barnes G.R.
        • et al.
        Imaging findings of fibrous dysplasia with histopathologic and intraoperative correlation.
        Am J Roentgenol. 2004; 182: 1389-1398https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.182.6.1821389
        • Werner R.L.
        • Castle J.T.
        Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the nasal cavity.
        Head Neck Pathol. 2015; 10: 336-339https://doi.org/10.1007/s12105-015-0662-9
        • Yan Z.
        • Wang Y.
        • Zhang Z.
        Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: an entity of CT and MR imaging to differentiate from malignant tumors of the sinonasal cavity.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2014; 38: 14-19https://doi.org/10.1097/rct.0b013e3182a7764c
        • Duval M.
        • Hwang E.
        • Kilty S.J.
        Systematic review of treatment and prognosis of sinonasal hemangiopericytoma.
        Head Neck. 2012; 35: 1205-1210https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.23074
        • Hennessey P.T.
        • Reh D.D.
        Benign sinonasal neoplasms.
        Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013; 27: 31-34https://doi.org/10.2500/ajra.2013.27.3893