- •XGP is a very rare form of chronic pancreatitis and in a majority of cases is misdiagnosed as a primary pancreatic neoplasm.
- •XGP can present as a solid or a cystic lesion and typically shows hypoattenuation on CT, high T2 signal, and low T1 signal.
- •XGP is often FDG-avid on PET and can show increased FDG uptake throughout or at the periphery—corresponding to wall uptake.
- •A relatively thick and enhancing wall is usually identified which has an infiltrative appearance about half of the time.
- •XGP should be considered when a pancreatic mass has an infiltrative appearing wall and involves surrounding structures.
Xanthogranulomatous pancreatitis (XGP) is an extremely rare cause of a cystic pancreatic mass. The pathophysiology of this process is not entirely clear but likely results from a combination of duct obstruction, infection, and repeated hemorrhage. It is difficult to differentiate this inflammatory lesion from a cystic neoplasm and, therefore, in the majority of cases XGP is misdiagnosed as a neoplasm on preoperative imaging. In this report, we describe a case of XGP, the imaging characteristics of XGP, and a differential diagnosis for a cystic pancreatic lesion.
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Published online: May 23, 2017
Accepted: May 22, 2017
Received in revised form: May 21, 2017
Received: March 10, 2017
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