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- Retrograde flow in the left inferior petrosal sinus and blood steal of the cavernous sinus associated with central vein stenosis: MR angiographic findings.Am J Neuroradiol. 2003; 24: 1364-1368
- Upper extremity arteriovenous dialysis fistula resulting in cavernous sinus arterialized blood flow.Am J Neuroradiol. 2007; 28: 1155-1156
- “Case Report #0437” Houston Angiography Club Meeting.PowerPoint 2007. 2008 ([<http://www.uth.tmc.edu/radiology/ICF/2007_2008/0437.pps>])
- Neuro-ophthalmology, Hagerstown, Harper and Row.1978: 336-338
- Stark D Bradley W Magnetic resonance imaging. 1308. C.V. Mosby, St Louis1999: 1660-1661
- Human vascular smooth muscle cells of diabetic origin exhibit increased proliferation, adhesion, and migration.J Vasc Surg. 2001; 33: 601-607
- Risk factors for the development of cephalic arch stenosis.J Vasc Access. 2007; 8: 287-295
- Central vein stenosis: a nephrologist's perspective.Semin Dial. 2007; 20: 53-62
- Ultrastructual analogies between intimal alterations in veins from diabetic patents and animals with STZ-induced diabetics.Ann Vasc Surg. 1999; 13: 294-301
- Right versus left internal jugular vein catheterization for hemodialysis: complications and impact on ipsilateral access creation.Artif Organs. 2004; 28: 728-733
☆Advances in Knowledge:
☆1. Retrograde filling of the external and internal jugular veins during the intracapillary phase of a vertebral artery injection may suggest central venous occlusion.
☆☆Implications for Patient Care:
☆☆1. Diabetic patients on dialysis with aneurysmal fistulae and signs and symptoms of carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) should be evaluated for central venous occlusions.
☆☆2. Nephrologists and peripheral interventional radiologists should be consulted earlier in the care of patients with fistula sites and signs and symptoms of CCF because they commonly see central venous occlusions and can facilitate a more rapid diagnosis.