The benefits of comparing conventional sonography, real-time spatial compound sonography, tissue harmonic sonography, and tissue harmonic compound sonography of hepatic lesions

Published:September 20, 2007DOI:


      This study aimed to compare conventional sonography, tissue harmonic imaging (THI), spatial compound sonography (SONOCT), and SONOCT+THI for overall image quality, lesion conspicuity, and elimination of artifacts of hepatic lesions. Forty-five patients were randomly selected, and 51 different hepatic lesions were scanned using each of the four techniques. The combined images of SONOCT+THI exhibited the best image quality for solid and cystic lesions, while conventional images were the worst for most hepatic lesions (P<.001). SONOCT was the best for fatty liver.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Imaging
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Oktar SÖ
        • Yücel C
        • Özdemir H
        • Ulutürk A
        • Isik S
        Comparison of conventional sonography, real-time compound sonography, tissue harmonic sonography, and tissue harmonic compound sonography of abdominal and pelvic lesions.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003; 181: 1341-1347
        • Entrekin RR
        • Porter BA
        • Sillesen HH
        • Wong AD
        • Cooperberg PL
        • Fix CH
        Real-time spatial compound imaging: application to breast, vascular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound.
        Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2001; 22: 50-64
        • Huber S
        • Wagner M
        • Medl M
        • Czembirek H
        Real-time spatial compound imaging in breast ultrasound.
        Ultrasound Med Biol. 2002; 28: 155-163
        • Kofoed SC
        • Gronholdt ML
        • Wilhjelm JE
        • Bismuth J
        • Sillesen H
        Real-time spatial compound imaging improves reproducibility in the evaluation of atherosclerotic carotid plaques.
        Ultrasound Med Biol. 2001; 27: 1311-1317
        • Lin DC
        • Nazarian LN
        • O'Kane PL
        • McShane JM
        • Parker L
        • Merritt CRB
        Advantages of real-time spatial compound sonography of the musculoskeletal system versus conventional sonography.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002; 179: 1629-1631
        • Wortsman XC
        • Holm EA
        • Wulf HC
        • Jemec GBE
        Real-time spatial compound ultrasound imaging of skin.
        Skin Res Technol. 2004; 10: 23-31
        • Choudhry S
        • Gorman B
        • Charboneau W
        • Tradup DJ
        • Beck RJ
        • Kofler JM
        • Groth DS
        Comparison of tissue harmonic imaging with conventional US in abdominal disease.
        Radiographics. 2000; 20: 1127-1135
        • Desser TS
        • Jeffrey RB
        • Lane MJ
        • Rails PW
        Tissue harmonic imaging: utility in abdominal and pelvic sonography.
        J Clin Ultrasound. 1999; 27: 135-142
        • Hann LE
        • Bach AM
        • Cramer LD
        • Siegel D
        • Yoo HH
        • Garcia R
        Hepatic sonography: comparison of tissue harmonic and standard sonography techniques.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999; 173: 201-206
        • Tranquart F
        • Grenier N
        • Eder V
        • Pourcelot L
        Clinical use of ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging.
        Ultrasound Med Biol. 1999; 25: 889-894
        • Yucel C
        • Ozdemir H
        • Asik E
        • Oner Y
        • Isik S
        Benefits of tissue harmonic imaging in the evaluation of abdominal and pelvic lesions.
        Abdom Imaging. 2003; 28: 103-109
        • Kim SH
        • Lee JM
        • Kim KG
        • Kim JH
        • Han JK
        • Lee JY
        • Choi BI
        Comparison of fundamental sonography, tissue-harmonic sonography, fundamental compound sonography, and tissue-harmonic compound sonography for focal hepatic lesions.
        Eur Radiol. 2006; 16: 2444-2453
        • Ricci OE
        • Fanfani S
        • Calabro A
        • Milano M
        • Ciatti S
        • Colagrande S
        • Masi A
        • Casini A
        • Acampora C
        • Ceccatel P
        Diagnostic approach to hepatic hemangiomas detected by ultrasound.
        Hepatogastroenterology. 1985; 32: 53-56
        • Jacobs JE
        • Birnbaum BA
        • Shapiro MA
        • Langlotz CP
        • Slosman F
        • Rubesin SE
        • Horii SC
        Diagnostic criteria for fatty infiltration of the liver on contrast-enhanced helical CT.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998; 171: 659-664
        • Schneider HT
        • Ell C
        • Benninger J
        • Theobaldy S
        • Friedel N
        • Rodl W
        • Heyder N
        • Hahn EG
        Imaging procedures prior to the extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of gallstones.
        Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1991; 116: 128-133
        • Federle MP
        • Filly RA
        • Moss AA
        Cystic hepatic neoplasms: complementary roles of CT and sonography.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981; 136: 345-348
        • Shen CC
        • Li PC
        Harmonic leakage and image quality degradation in tissue harmonic imaging.
        IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2001; 48: 728-736