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The purpose of this study was to highlight pleurocutaneous fistula, documented on computed tomography (CT) scans, as a complication of oleothorax. CT images of the chest were evaluated retrospectively in three patients with pleurocutaneous fistula complicating oleothorax. The images documented oleothorax rupture in all three, with only one patient (case 2) showing concomitant surrounding chest wall and axillary inflammatory reaction. Surgery performed on one patient (case 1) confirmed the CT findings. While CT is invaluable in the demonstration of complications of oleothorax, to our knowledge CT depiction of oleothorax has not been reported in the literature. This complication may be more common than described in earlier literature, with the advent of cross-sectional imaging. In the right clinical setting, CT findings of inflammation or edema surrounding the oleothorax rupture may warrant surgical intervention.
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