The PCL line: An indirect sign of anterior cruciate ligament injury

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      A new sign of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear based on secondary changes of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is described. Thirty-one patients with magnetic resonance (MR) examinations of the knee suspicious for ACL injury and 50 normal controls were examined. In each patient a line was drawn adjacent and parallel to the posterior margin of the distal portion of the PCL and was extended proximally. A positive PCL line did not intersect the medullary cavity of the femur. A positive line correctly predicted ACL injury in 19 of 22 patients.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Imaging
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Mink J.H.
        • Levy T.
        • Crues J.V.
        Tears of the anterior cruciate ligament and menisci of the knee: MR imaging evaluation.
        Radiology. 1988; 167: 769-774
        • Lee S.K.
        • Yao L.
        • Phelps C.T.
        • Wirth C.R.
        • Czajka J.
        • Lozman J.
        Anterior cruciate ligament tears: MR imaging compared with arthrography and clinical tests.
        Radiology. 1988; 166: 861-864
        • Turner D.A.
        • Prodromos C.C.
        • Petasnick S.P.
        • Clark J.W.
        Acute injury of the ligaments of the knee: Magnetic resonance evaluation.
        Radiology. 1986; 154: 717-722
        • Vellet A.D.
        • Marks P.H.
        • Fowler P.J.
        • Munro T.G.
        Occult posttraumatic osteochondral lesions of the knee; prevalence and significance at MR imaging.
        Radiology. 1991; 178: 271-275
        • Wirth B.
        • Spritzer C.
        Ancillary findings of anterior cruciate ligament injuries on MR images.
        Radiology. 1990; 177(P): 263-264
        • Lynch T.C.P.
        • Crues J.V.
        • Morgan F.W.
        • Sheehan W.E.
        • Marter L.P.
        • Ryu R.
        Bone abnormalities of the knee: prevalence and significance at MR imaging.
        Radiology. 1898; 171: 761-766
        • Fischer S.P.
        • Fox J.M.
        • Del Pizzo W.
        • Friedman M.J.
        • Snyder S.J.
        • Ferkel R.D.
        Accuracy of diagnosis from magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.
        J Bone Joint Surg. 1991; 73A: 210
        • Vallet A.D.
        • Marks P.
        • Fowler P.
        • Munro T.
        Accuracy of nonorthogonal magnetic resonance imaging in acute disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament.
        Arthroscopy. 1989; 5: 287-293
        • Phillips W.C.
        • Scott J.A.
        • Blaczcinski G.
        How sensitive is “sensitivity”; how specific is specificity?.
        AJR. 1983; 140: 1265-1270
        • Girgis F.G.
        • Marshall J.L.
        • Manajam A.R.S.
        The cruciate ligaments of the knee joint: anatomical, functional and experimental analysis.
        Clin Orthop. 1975; 106: 216-231
        • Muller W.
        Kinematics of the cruciate ligaments.
        in: Feagin J.A. The Crucial Ligaments. Churchill Livingstone, New York1988: 217-234
        • Butler B.L.
        • Noyes F.R.
        • Grood E.S.
        Ligamentous restraints to anterior-posterior draw in the human knee: A biomechanical study.
        J Bone Joint Surg. 1980; 62A: 259-270
        • Torg J.S.
        • Conrad W.
        • Ralen V.
        Clinical diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament instability in the athlete.
        Am J Sports Med. 1976; 4: 84-93
        • Grood E.S.
        • Noyes F.R.
        Diagnosis of knee ligament injuries: biomechanical precepts.
        in: Feagin J.A. The Cruciate Ligaments. Churchill Livingstone, New York1988: 245-260
        • Beltran J.
        MRI of the Musculoskeletal System.
        in: Gower, New York1990: 702-741
        • Noyes F.R.
        • Grood E.S.
        Diagnosis of knee ligament injuries: Clinical concepts.
        in: Feagin J.A. The Crucial Ligaments. Churchill Livingstone, New York1988: 261-285